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Our fascination with the communicative power of musical sound precedes the development of verbal communication. Music has always been a part of every culture as evidenced through its role in leisure, ceremony, worship, and celebration. This integral role is based on the ability of musical communication to produce response. This response, in its highest form of musical experience, is both intellectual and emotional, resulting from interaction between performer, listener, and the musical work itself as it unfolds in time. This is an active and engaging process of perception, reflection, and judgment, and requires basic aural musical skills on the part of all participants if it is to be successful.
For this form of communication to be successful it must also rely on the participants' ability to recognize the significance of individual musical passages, the effective use of musical elements, the intention and skill of the composer, the historical and cultural context of a work, and numerous other musical circumstances which affect any musical statement. In other words, to experience the significance of a musical work, it is necessary to develop specific understandings of music elements and how they work as well as acquire basic technical and perceptive musical skills.
Understanding and appreciation of music is a basic, pragmatic, and functional part of everyday life. Music exemplifies a way of creative thinking that is rooted in a variety of value systems. It can involve singing, playing, and/or listening as an interaction with a rich and varied body of works representing the spectrum of human experience. While intuitive and imaginative, music requires a high degree of discipline and skill. Thus the process of making music epitomizes creative problem solving at it highest level.
Arts Education Principles/Standards: an ICFAD
Position, International Council of Fine Arts Deans in cooperation
with the American Council for the Arts, 1993.
Alaska Content Standard A: A student should be able to create and perform in the arts.
|sing independently, on pitch and in rhythm, with appropriate timbre, diction, and posture, and maintain a steady tempo||sing accurately and with good breath control throughout the singing ranges, alone and in small and large ensembles||sing with expression and technical accuracy a large and varied repertoire of vocal literature, including some songs performed from memory||same as previous benchmark, plus demonstrating higher levels of skill, dealing with more complex examples, and responding to works of art in increasingly sophisticated ways|
|sing from memory a varied repertoire of songs representing genres and styles from diverse cultures||sing music written in two and three parts||sing music written in four parts, with and without accompaniment||sing music written in more than four parts|
|sing in groups, blending vocal timbres, matching dynamic levels, and responding to the cues of a conductor||same as previous benchmark, plus demonstrating higher levels of skill, dealing with more complex examples, and responding to works of art in increasingly sophisticated ways||demonstrate well-developed ensemble skills||sing in small ensembles with one student on a part|
|perform on pitch, in rhythm, with appropriate dynamics and timbre, and maintain a steady tempo||perform on at least one instrument accurately and independently, alone and in small and large ensembles, with good posture, good playing position, and good breath, bow, or stick control||same as previous benchmark, plus demonstrating higher levels of skill, dealing with more complex examples, and responding to works of art in increasingly sophisticated ways|
|perform easy rhythmic, melodic, and chordal patterns accurately and independently on rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic classroom instruments||perform with expression and technical accuracy on at least one string, wind percussion, or classroom instrument repertoire of instrumental literature|
|echo short rhythms and melodic patterns||play by ear simple melodies on a melodic instrument and simple accompaniments on harmonic instrument|
|perform in groups, blending instrumental timbres, matching dynamic levels, and responding to the cues of a conductor||perform in small ensembles with one student on a part||perform an appropriate part in an ensemble, demonstrating well-developed ensemble skills|
|perform independent instrumental parts while other students sing or play contrasting parts|
|Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments; reading music; and creating music for various media|
|improvise "answers" in the same style to given rhythmic and melodic phrases|
|improvise simple rhythmic and melodic ostinato accompaniments||improvise simple harmonic accompaniments||improvise stylistically appropriate harmonizing parts||improvise stylistically appropriate harmonizing parts in a variety of styles|
|not applicable at this age level||improvise short melodies, unaccompanied and over given rhythmic accompaniments, each in a consistent style, meter, and tonality||improvise original melodies over given chord progressions, each in a consistent style, meter, and tonality||improvise original melodies in a variety of styles, over given chord progressions, each in a consistent style, meter, and tonality|
|use a variety of sound sources when composing||use a variety of traditional and nontraditional sound sources and electronic media when composing and arranging||compose and arrange music for voices and various acoustic and electronic instruments, demonstrating knowledge of the ranges and traditional usages of the sound sources|
|read whole, half, dotted half, quarter, and eighth notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 meter signatures||read whole, half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, and dotted notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4,4/4,6/8, 3/8, and allabreve meter signatures||demonstrate the ability to read an instrumental or vocal score of up to four staves by describing how the elements of music are used||demonstrate the ability to read a full instrumental or vocal score by describing how the elements of music are used and explaining all transpositions and clefs|
|use a system (that is, syllables, numbers, or letters) to read simple pitch notation in the treble clef in major keys||read at sight simple melodies in both the treble and bass clefs|
|identify symbols and traditional terms referring to dynamics, tempo, and articulation and interpret them correctly when performing||identify and define standard notation symbols for pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tempo, articulation, and expression|
|use standard symbols to notate meter, rhythm, pitch, and dynamics in simple patterns presented by the teacher||use standard notation to record their musical ideas and the musical ideas of others|
|not applicable at this age level||sight-read, accurately and expressively, music with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6||sight-read, accurately and expressively, music with a level of difficulty of 3, on a scale of 1 to 6||sight-read, accurately and expressively, music with a level of difficulty of 4, on a scale of 1 to 6|
|integrate music and other art forms to create a work of art|
|define the terms composer, professional musician, soloist, orchestral member, band member, and folk performer||define the terms arranger and librettist for the musical theatre|
|not applicable at this age level||explore avenues in music in which people might be employed, discovering the background, skills, and other requirements needed|
Alaska Content Standard B: A student should be able to understand the historical and contemporary role in the arts in Alaska, the nation, and the world.
|identify by genre or style aural examples of music from various historical periods and cultures||classify by genre or style and by historical period, including Alaska Native, US and world, or culture unfamiliar but representative aural examples of music and explain the reasoning behind their classifications|
|describe in simple terms how elements of music are used in music examples from various cultures of the world||describe distinguishing characteristics of representative music genres and styles from a variety of cultures||identify and explain the stylistic features of a given musical work that serve to define its aesthetic tradition and its historical or cultural context|
|not applicable at this age level||classify, compare and contrast music of various world cultures|
|identify various uses of music in daily experiences and describe characteristics that make certain music suitable for each use||compare, in several cultures of the world, functions music serves, roles of musicians, and conditions under which music is typically performed||identify various roles that musicians perform, cite representative individuals who have functioned in each role, and describe their activities and achievements|
|recognize themes in music such as love, peace, conflict, community, childhood, etc.|
|become familiar with well-known compositions associated with stories||identify 6 exemplary compositions from composers of diverse backgrounds including one American composer||identify works by contemporary composers|
|not applicable at this age level||not applicable at this age level||investigate the careers of music historian and ethnomusicologist|
Alaska Content Standard C: A student should be able to critique the student's art and the art of others.
|identify simple music forms when presented aurally|
|describe specific music events in a given aural example, using basic appropriate terminology||describe specific music events in a given aural example, using appropriate terminology||analyze aural examples of a varied repertoire of music, representing diverse genres and cultures, by describing the uses of elements of music and expressive devices|
|use appropriate terminology in explaining music, music notation, music instruments and voices, and music performances||demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles of meter, rhythm, tonality, intervals, chords, and harmonic progressions in analyses of music||demonstrate extensive knowledge of the technical vocabulary of music|
|identify the sounds of a variety of instruments, including many orchestra and band instruments, and instruments from various cultures, as well as children's voices and male and female adult voices|
|respond through purposeful movement to selected prominent music characteristics or to specific music events while listening to music||identify and explain compositional devices and techniques used to provide unity, variety and tension and realize in a musical work and give examples of other works that make similar uses of these devices and techniques||compare ways in which musical materials are used in a given example relative to ways in which they are used in other works of the same genre or style|
Alaska Content Standard C: A student should be able to critique the student's art and the art of others.
|use criteria for evaluating performances and compositions||evaluate the quality and effectiveness of own and others' performances, compositions, arrangements, and improvisations by applying specific criteria including originality appropriate for the style of the music and offer constructive suggestions for improvement||same as previous benchmark, plus demonstrating higher levels of skill, dealing with more complex examples, and responding to works of art in increasingly sophisticated ways`||same as previous benchmark, plus demonstrating higher levels of skill, dealing with more complex examples, and responding to works of art in increasingly sophisticated ways`|
|not applicable at this age level||not applicable at this age level||use criteria for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of music performances and compositions and be able to offer a defense of the position||same as previous benchmark, plus demonstrating higher levels of skill, dealing with more complex examples, and responding to works of art in increasingly sophisticated ways`|
|be able to exhibit appropriate audience skills|
|not applicable at this age level||investigate careers relating to arts criticism|
|devise criteria for evaluating performances and compositions||develop criteria for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of music performances and compositions and apply the criteria in their personal listening and performing||evolve specific criteria for making informed, critical evaluations of the quality and effectiveness of performances, compositions, arrangements, and improvisations and apply the criteria in their personal participation in music|
|explain, using appropriate music terminology, personal preferences for specific musical works and styles||evaluate a performance, composition, arrangement, or improvisation by comparing it to similar or exemplary models||evaluate a given musical work in terms of its aesthetic qualities and explain the musical means it uses to evoke feelings and emotions|
Alaska Content Standard D: A student should be able to recognize beauty and meaning through the arts in the student's life.
|express feelings evoked by music from various cultures and historical periods|
|express through other art forms feelings evoked by music|
|not applicable at this age level||be able to listen to another individual's belief about a composition or performance and consider the individual's reasons for holding those beliefs|
|recognize that cultural beliefs effect the meaning of a composition|
|not applicable at this age level||not applicable at this age level||investigate careers related to music aesthetics|